Zelev Mikhail Vladimirovich, Candidate of historical sciences, senior staff scientist, Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Research, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Nowadays, Russian researchers are paying increased attention to studying the social policy of soviet authorities during the Stalin’s period, causing a special interest to achievements of the foreign historiography in the given field. It was the foreign researchers of Stalinism who ironically were the vanguard of scientific search in the soviet period, they created historiographic concepts being the most adequate to the material under investigation. The aim of the article is to analyze the transformation of historiographic approaches of foreign historians in 1950s–1980s to the problems of the social policy of soviet authorities regarding engineers and industrialists in 1930s, as well as to evolution of the given social groups.
Materials and methods. Realization of the stated goals was achieved through studying of main works by American, English and Australian historians on the given problems for the period since the beginning of the specific research in the given field in 1950s till the rise of the revisionist historiography in 1980s. In preparation of the work the author used a set of basic methods of historiographic research: classification and typologization, formation of ideal types, periodization, historical-genetic and comparative-historical methods.
Results. The authors researched the development of the historiographic concepts, created by foreign historians, who studied the problems of social transformation of such groups of the soviet society of 1930s, as engineers and directors of industrial enterprises, as well as the policy of Stalin’s authorities in the given field.
Conclusions. The research shows that it is the field of soviet engineers’ and economic executives’ history that most clearly indicates the transformation of the foreign historiography of Stalinism from totalitarian one to the revisionist concept. Foreign researchers, in defiance of the lack of somewhat open access to the soviet archives, managed to create a clear and consistent pattern of social groups’ development, that still remains the base for new generations of historians.
stalinism, historical studies, revisionism, industrialization, engineers, managers.
1. Granick D. The Management of the Industrial Firm in the USSR. New York, 1954.
2. Berliner J. S. Factory and Manager in the USSR. Cambridge (Mass.), 1957.
3. Azrael J. Managerial Power and Soviet Politics. Cambridge (Mass.), 1966.
4. Andrle V. Managerial Power in the Soviet Union. Farnborough (Westmead.) & Lexington (Mass.), 1976.
5. Bailes K. E. Technology and Society under Lenin and Stalin: Original of the Soviet Technical Intelligentsia, 1917–1941. Princeton (N. J.), 1978.
6. Fitzpatrick Sh. Educational and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921–1934. Cambridge (Mass.), 1979.
7. Lampert N. The Technical Intelligentsia and the Soviet State: A Study of Soviet Managers and Technicians, 1928–1935. London & Basingstoke (Hamp.), 1979.
8. Fitzpatrick Sh. Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia. Ithaca (N. Y.), 1992.
9. Nikolaev A. N. Istoricheskie aspekty stanovleniya rossiyskoy tekhnokraticheskoy elity (1921–1996 gg.): dis. ra ist. nauk [Historical aspect of formation of the Russian technocratic elite (1921–1996): dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of historical sciences]. Saratov, 1996.
10. Abramov V. N. Tekhnicheskaya intelligentsiya Rossii v usloviyakh formirovaniya bol'- shevistskogo politicheskogo rezhima (1921 – konets 30-kh gg.) [Technical intelligentsia of Russia in conditions of the bolshevist political regime formation (1921 – late 30s)]. Saint-Petersburg, 1997.
11. Siegelbaum L. Stakhanovism and the Politics of Productivity in the USSR, 1935–1941. Cambridge (Mass.), 1988.
12. Siegelbaum L. Stalinism: Its Nature and Aftermath. Basingstoke (Hamp.) & London, 1992, pp. 127–156.
13. Balzer H. Science and the Soviet Social Order. Cambridge (Mass.) & London, 1990.